Meet our Dept. Chair

Kimberly S. Reece


Email: [[v|kreece,Contact Dr. Kimberly Reece]]
Phone: (804) 684-7407
Office: Chesapeake Bay Hall S110
Section: Ecosystem Health
Interests: Molecular/genetic analysis of aquaculture species, shellfish disease pathogens.
Website: {{,Marine and Aquaculture Genetics}}

  • B.S.  University of Rochester
  • Ph.D.  Cornell University
Research Interests

Overall the focus of my laboratory is molecular genetic analyses of shellfish species and their pathogens. Recently, the emphasis has been on molecular phylogenetics, population genetics, shellfish genomics and the development of molecular diagnostics for detection of human and animal pathogens in the aquatic environment and in marine host tissues.

Current Projects
  • Oyster and Clam Genetics.  The goal of these projects is to develop and utilize molecular genetic markers for aquaculture species including the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, the hard clam, Mercinaria mercenaria and the Asian oyster Crassostrea ariakensis, which is being considered for introduction into the Chesapeake Bay.  The molecular markers are being used for population genetic analyses, genetic tracking of oyster restoration efforts with hatchery reared stocks and examination of the genetic interactions between hatchery stocks and wild populations. In addition, these markers provide molecular markers for genetic maps and information to facilitate breeding programs allowing for rapid development of a wide variety of strains and breeds with the long term goal of genetically improved strains for aquaculture and fishery replenishment.
  •  Analysis of genetic variation in strains of Perkinsus marinus: Molecular markers have been developed which allow identification of Perkinsus marinus strains and examination of the population genetic structure of this oyster parasite. This research resulted in demonstration of strain variation within the species and a difference in distribution of strains geographically.
  • Phylogentic analysis of protozoan parasites: These projects examine the molecular phylogeny of protozoan parasites of marine and freshwater invertebrates including Perkinsus species and members of the phylum Haplosporidia, which are found around the world. Many of these parasites are very harmful pathogens of commercially important mollusks.
  • Development of molecular diagnostics for harmful algal bloom organisms and human pathogens: The objective of these projects it to develop molecular diagnostics to detect HAB and pathogen species in finfish, shellfish and environmental water and sediment samples.
  • Toxicity studies of HAB species:  These studies examine toxic effects of various HAB organisms including Alexandrium monilatum, Karlodinium veneficum and Cochlodinium polykrikoides, on aquatic organisms through laboratory and field experiments.
Projects & Support
  • East Coast Hard Clam Selective Breeding Collaborative - with K. Bunting-Howarth et al (Sea Grant Team), B. Allam et al (Research Team), & J.R. McDowell (VIMS Team). 2019-2022; NOAA Aquaculture.
  • Molecular Markers to Track and Improve Hard Clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) Aquaculture Stocks in Virginia - with J.R. McDowell. 2019-2021; VA Sea Grant.
  • Molecular Genetic Markers to Track and Improve Hard Clam Aquaculture Stocks - with J.R. McDowell. 2019-2020; VA Sea Grant.
  • Molecular Analysis of HAB Samples and Experimental Impacts of HAB Species in VA Waters of Chesapeake Bay. 2019-2020; VA Dept. Health.
  • Enhancing Commercial Sustainability in the Hatchery Production - with R.B. Carnegie, B.K. Song, R.A. Snyder, S.K. Allen Jr., J.L. Smith, E. Shadwick, D. Kuhn & M. Schwartz. 2017-2020; NOAA Aquaculture.
  • Alteration of Carbon Fluxes by Intense Phytoplankton Blooms in a Microtidal Estuary - with W.K. Vogelbein & W.G. Reay. 2018-2020; NSF.
  • ECOHAB: Toxicity and Potential Food-Web Impacts of Alexandrium monilatum and its Toxins - with W.K. Vogelbein, J.L. Smith, R.B. Carnegie, W.G. Reay, H.J. Small & T.M. Harris. 2017-2020; NOAA ECOHAB.
  • Development of Genomic Resources for Advancement of Hard Clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) Aquaculture - with J.R. McDowell. 2019-2020; VA Agriculture Council.
  • Influence of Gonadal Stage and Ploidy on Human-Pathogenic Vibrio Levels in the Oyster Crassostrea virginica - with C. Audemard & R.B. Carnegie. 2017-2020; NOAA Saltonstall-Kennedy.
  • Identifying Strategies to Minimize Impacts of Harmful Algal Blooms on Performance and Survival of Triploid Oysters Cultured in Lower Chesapeake Bay - with W.K. Vogelbein & W.G. Reay. 2017-2020; NOAA Aquaculture.
  • Chen, X., Reece, K.S. and J.D. Shields (2023) Natural transmission of Hematodinium perezi in juvenile blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) in the laboratory. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 198:107918.
  • Sanderson, M.P., Hudson, K.L., Gregg, L.S., Chesler-Poole, A.B., Small, J.M, Reece, K.S., Carnegie, R.B. and J.L. Smith (2023) Detection of toxins and harmful algal bloom cells in shellfish hatcheries and efforts toward removal. Aquaculture 562:738714.
  • Audemard, C., Ben-Horin, T., Kator, H.I. and K.S. Reece (2022) Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters under low tidal range conditions:Is seawater analysis useful for risk assessment? Foods 11(24):4065.
  • Fortin, S.G., Song, B.K., Anderson, I.C. and K.S. Reece (2022) Blooms of the harmful algae Margalefidinium polykrikoides and Alexandrium monilatum alter the York River Estuary microbiome. Harmful Algae 114:102216.
  • Quin, Q., Shen, J. and K.S. Reece (2022) A deterministic model for understanding nonlinear viral dynamics in oysters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 88(8):e02360-21.
  • Audemard, C., Reece, K.S., Latour, R.J., Bienlien, L.M. and R.B. Carnegie (2022) Influence of oyster genetic background on levels of human pathogenic Vibrio spp. Aquaculture 562(1):738763.
  • Bienlien, L.M., Audemard, C., Reece, K.S. and R.B. Carnegie (2021) Impact of parasitism on levels of human- pathogenic Vibrio species in eastern oysters. J. Appl. Microbiol. 132(2). https://
  • Ben-Horin, T., Audemard, C., Calvo, L., Reece, K.S. and D. Bushek (2021) Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus increase in intertidal-farmed oysters in the mid-Atlantic region, but only at low tide. N. Am. J. Aquac. 84:95-104.
  • Harris, C.M., Krock, B., Tillmann, U., Tainter, C.J., Stec, D.F., Andersen, A.J.C., Larsen, T.O., Reece, K.S. and T.M. Harris (2021) Alkalai metal-and acid-catalyzed interconversion of goniondomin A with congeners B and C. J. Nat. Prod. 84(9):2554-2567.
  • Bienlien, L.M., Audemard, C., Reece, K.S. and R.B. Carnegie (2021) Impact of parasitism on levels of human-pathogenic Vibrio species in eastern oysters. J. Appl. Microbiol. 00:1-12.
  • Chowdhury, M.S.N., Reece, K.S., Joy, S.S., Coen, L.D. and A.C. Smaal (2021) Morphological and mitochondrial DNA analyses of oysters in the northern Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. J. Shellfish Res. 40(2):213-229.
  • Qin, Q., Shen, J., Reece, K.S. and M.R. Mullholland (2021) Developing a 3D mechanistic model for examining factors contributing to harmful blooms of Margalefidinium polykrikoides in a temperate estuary. Harmful Algae 105:102055.
  • Himes, A.R., Rivest, E.B., McDowell, J.R., Reece, K.S. and R.A. Snyder (2021) Assessing environmental tolerance of Mercenaria mercenaria along the east coast of the United States. Integr. Comp. Biol. 61:E381-E381.
  • Onofrio, M.D., Egerton, T.A., Reece, K.S., Pease, S.K.D., Sanderson, M.P., Jones III, W., Yeargan, E., Roach, A., DeMent, C., Wood, A., Reay, W.G., Place, A.R. and J.L. Smith (2021) Spatiotemporal distribution of phycotoxins and their co-occurrence within nearshore waters. Harmful Algae 103:101993.
  • de Melo, C.M.R., Divilov, K., Durland, E., Schoolfield, B., Davis, J., Carnegie, R.B., Reece, K.S., Evans, F., and C. Langdon (2021) Introduction and evalutation on the US West Coast of a new strain (Midori) of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) collected from the Ariake Sea, southern Japan. Aquaculture 531:735970.
  • Pease, S.K.D., Reece, K.S., O'Brien, J., Hobbs, P.L.M. and J.L. Smith (2021) Oyster hatchery breakthrough of two HABs and potential effects on larval Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Harmful Algae 101:101965.
  • Dungan, C.F. and K.S. Reece (2020) Chapter 5.2.1: Perkinsus spp. Infections of Marine Mollusks. The American Society Fish Health Section Bluebook.
  • Reece, K.S., R.W. Litaker, Place, A.R. and W.K. Vogelbein (2020) Pfiesteria: a common estuarine dinoflagellate with a colorful past. In: Dinoflagellates: Classification, Evolution and Ecological Significance. Ed. D.V. Subba Rao, Ch. 9, pp. 303-351. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY, USA.
  • Reece, K.S., Burreson, E.M., Gibson, D.M., Hildebrandt, S.S. and I Fenwick (2020) The Chesapeake Bay Oyster: Cobblestone to Keystone. In: Diet for a Sustainable Ecosystem: The science for recovering the health of the Chesapeake Bay and its people. Ed. B. Cuker. Series: Estuaries of the World, Ed. J.P. Ducrotoy. Springer International Publishing AG, Cham, Switzerland.
  • Harris, C.M., Reece, K.S. and T.M. Harris (2020) Revisiting the toxin profile of Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax; Formation of a desmethyl congener of goniodomin A. Toxicon. 188:122-126.
  • Harris, C.M., Reece, K.S., Stec, D.F., Scott, G.P., Jones, W.M., Hobbs, P.L.M. and T.M Harris (2020) The toxin goniodomin, produced by Alexandrium spp., is identical to goniodomin A. Harmful Algae 92:101707.
  • Friedman, C.S., Reece, K.S., Wippel, B.J.T., Agnew, M.V., Dègremont, L., Dhar, A.K., Kirkland, P., MacIntyre, A., Morga, B., Robison, C. and C.A. Burge (2020) Unraveling concordant and varying responses of oyster species to Ostreid Herpesvirus 1 variants. Science of the Total Environment 739:139752.
  • Burge, C.A., Reece, K.S., Dhar, A.K., Kirkland, P., Morga, B. Dégremont, L., Faury, N., Wippel, B.J.T., MacIntyre, A. and C.S. Friedman (2020) First comparison of French and Australian OsHV-1 µvars by bath exposure. Dis. Aquat. Org. 138:137-144.  
  • Wolny, J.L., Tomlinson, M.C., Schollaert Uz, S., Egerton, T.A., McKay, J.R., Meredith, A., Reece, K.S., Scott, G.P. and  R.P. Stumpf (2020) Current and future remote sensing of harmful algal blooms in the Chesapeake Bay to support the shellfish industry. Frontiers in Marine Science 7:337.
  • Tainter, C.J., Schley, N.D., Harris, C.M., Stec, D.F., Song, A.K., Balinski, A., May, J.C., Mclean, J.A., Reece, K.S. and T.M. Harris (2020) Algal toxin goniodomin A binds potassium ion selectively to yield a conformationally altered complex with potential biological consequences. J. Nat. Prod. 83(4):1069-1081.
  • Small, H.J., Huchin-Mian, J.P., Reece, K.S., Pagenkopp-Lohan, K., Butler IV, M.J. and J.D. Shields (2019) Parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi prevalence in larval and juvenile blue crabs Callinectes sapidus from coastal bays of Virginia. Dis. Aquat. Org. 134(3):215-222.
  • Small, H.J., Stentiford, G.D., Behringer, D.C., Freeman, M.A., Atherley, N.A.M., Reece, K.S., Bateman, K.S. and J.D. Shields (2019) Characterization of microsporidian Ameson herrnkindi sp.nov. infecting Carribean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus. Dis. Aquat. Org. 136(3):209-218.
  • Turley, B., Reece, K.S., Shen, J., Guo, X. and J.R. McDowell (2019) Multiple drivers of interannual oyster settlement and recruitment in the lower Chesapeake Bay. Cons. Genet. 20(5):1057-1071.
  • Guévélou, E., Carnegie, R.B., Small, J.M., Hudson, K., Reece, K.S., Rybovich, M.M. and S.K. Allen Jr. (2019) Tracking triploid mortalities of Eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica in the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay. J. Shellfish Res. 38:101-113.
  • Burreson, E.M., Reece, K.S. and F. Dunker (2019) A new species of Ostreobdella (Hirudinida: Piscicolidae) infesting rockfishes in the genus Sebastes (Sebastidae) in marine public aquaria on the northern California coast, U.S.A. Comparat. Parasitol. 86:30-37.
  • Audemard, C., Kator H.I. and K.S. Reece (2018) High salinity relay as a post-harvest processing method for reducing Vibrio vulnificus levels in oysters (Crassostrea virginica). J. Food Microbiol. 279:70-79.
  • Pagenkopp Lohan, K., Hill-Spanik, K., Torchin, M., Fleischer, R., Carnegie, R., Reece, K.S. and G. Ruiz (2018) Phylogeography and connectivity of molluscan parasites: Perkinsus spp. in Panama and boyond. Inter. J. Parasit. 48:135-144.
  • Kang, H.-S., Yang, H.-S., Reece, K.S., Cho, Y.-G., Lee, H.-M., Kim, C.-W. and K.S. Choi (2017) Survey on Perkinsus species in Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in Korean waters using species-specific PCR. Fish Pathol. 52:202-205.
  • Reece, K.S., Scott, G.P., Dang, C. and C.F. Dungan (2017) A novel monoclonal Perkinsus chesapeaki in vitro isolate from an Australian cockle, Anadara trapezia. J. Invert. Pathol. 148:86-93.
  • Vandersea, M.W., Kibler, S.R., Van Sant, S.B., Tester, P.A., Eckert, G., Camarata, C., Reece, K.S., Scott, G.P., Place, A., Holderied, K., Hondolero, D. and R.W. Litaker (2017) qPCR assays for Alexandrium fundyense and A. ostenfeldii identified from Alaskan coastal waters and a review of species-specific Alexandrium molecular assays. Phycologia 56:303-320.
  • Kang, H.-S., Yang, H.-S., Reece, K.S., Hong, H.-K., Park, K.-I. and K.-S. Choi (2016) First report of P. honshuensis in the variegated carpet shell clam Ruditapes variegatus in Korea. Dis. Aquat. Org. 122:35-41.
  • Glandon, H.L., Michaelis, A.K., Politano, V.A., Alexander, S.T., Vlahovich, E.A., Reece, K.S., Koopman, H.N., Meritt, D.W. and K.T. Paynter (2016) Impact of environment and ontogeny on relative fecundity and egg quality of female oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from four sites in Northern Chesapeake Bay. Biol. Bull. 231:185-198.
  • Hill-Spanik, K.M., McDowell, J.R., Stokes, N.A., Reece, K.S., Burreson, E.M. and R.B. Carnegie (2015) Phylogeographic perspective on the distribution and dispersal of a marine pathogen, oyster parasite Bonamia exitiosa. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 536:65-76.
  • Ramilo, A., Carrasco, N., Reece, K.S., Valencia, J.M., Grau, A., Aceituno, P., Rojas, M., Gairin, I., Dolores Furones, M., Abollo, E. and A. Villalba (2015) Update of information on perkinsosis in NW Mediterranean coast: Identification of Perkinsus spp. (Protista) in new locations and hosts. J. Invert. Pathol. 125:37-41.
  • Dang, C., Dungan, C.F., Scott, G.P. and K.S. Reece (2015) Perkinsus sp. infections and in vitro isolates from Anadara trapezia (mud arks) of Queensland, Australia. Dis. Aquat. Org. 113:31-58.
  • da Silva, P.M., Scardua, M.P., Vianna, R.T., Mendonça, R.C., Vieira, C.B., Dungan, C.F., Scott, G.P. and K.S. Reece (2014) Two Perkinsus spp. infect Crassostrea gasar oysters from cultured and wild populations of the Rio São Francisco estuary, Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. J. Inv. Parasit. 119:62-71.
  • Hill, K.M., Stokes, N.A., Webb, S.C., Hine, P.M., Kroeck, M.A., Moore, J.D., Morley, M.S. Reece, K.S., Burreson, E.M. and R.B. Carnegie (2014) Phylogenetics of Bonamia parasites based on small subunit and internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequence data. Dis. Aquat. Org. 110:33-54.
  • Pagenkopp Lohan, K.M., McDowell, J.R., Shields, J.D. and K.S. Reece (2014) Genotypic variation in the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi along the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia. Mar. Biol. 161(2):261-273.
  • Gauthier, D.T., Audemard, C.A., Carlsson, J.E.L., Darden, T.L., Denson, M.R., Reece, K.S. and J. Carlsson (2013) Genetic population structure of US Atlantic coastal striped bass (Morone saxatilis). J. Hered. 104(4):510-520.
  • Pagenkopp Lohan, K.M., Small, H.J., Shields, J.D., Place, A.R. and K.S. Reece (2013) Conservation in the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of Hematodinium perezi from Callinectes sapidus. Dis. Aquat. Org. 103(1):65-75.
  • Pagenkopp Lohan, K.M., Reece, K.S., Miller, R.L., Wheeler, K.N., Small, H.J. and J.D. Shields (2012) The role of alternate hosts in the ecology and life history of Hematodinium sp., a parasitic dinoflagellate of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). J. Parasitol. 98:73-84.
  • Pagenkopp Lohan, K.M., McDowell, J.R., Shields, J.D., Xiao, J., Miller, T.L. and K.S. Reece (2012) Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the parasitic dinoflagellate, Hematodinium perezi, a parasite of Callinectes sapidus. Mol. Ecol. Res. 12:570-572.
  • Liu, S., Rexroad, C.E., Couch, C.R., Cordes, J.F., Reece, K.S. and C.V. Sullivan (2012) A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Mar. Biotechnol. 14:237-244.
  • Small, H.J., Shields, J.D., Reece K.S., Bateman, K. and G.D. Stentiford (2012) Morphological and molecular characterization of Hematodinium perezi (Dinophyceae: Syndiniales), a dinoflagellate parasite of the harbour crab, Liocarcinus depurator. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 59:54-66.
  • Xiao, J., Cordes, J.F., Moss, J.A. and K.S. Reece (2011) Genetic diversity in US hatchery stocks of Crassostrea ariakensis (Fujita, 1913) and comparison with natural populations in Asia. J. Shellfish. Res. 30:751-760.
  • Audemard, C., Kator, H.I., Rhodes, M.W., Gallivan, T., Erskine, A.J., Leggett, T.A. and K.S. Reece (2011) High salinity relay as a post-harvest processing strategy to reduce Vibrio vulnificus levels in Chesapeake Bay oysters (Crassostrea virginica). J. Food Protection  74(11):1902-1907.
  • Gauthier, D.T., Reece, K.S., Xiao, J., Rhodes, M.W., Kator, H.I., Latour, R.J., Bonzek, C.F., Hoenig, J.M. and W.K. Vogelbein (2010) Quantitative PCR assay for Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and Mycobacterium shottsii and application to environmental samples and fishes from Chesapeake Bay.  Appl. Environ. Micro. 76:6171-6179.
  • Li, C., Shields, J.D. Miller, T.L., Small, H.J., Pagenkopp, K.M. and K.S. Reece (2010) Detection and quantification of the free-living stage of the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. in laboratory and environmental samples.  Harmful Algae 9:515-521.
  • Stentiford, G.D., Bateman, K.S., Small, H.J., Moss, J., Shields, J.D., Reece, K.S. and I. Tuck (2010) Myospora metanephrops (n. gn., n. sp.) from marine lobsters and a proposal for erection of a new Order and Family (Crustaceacida; Myosporidae) in the Class Marinosporidia (Phylum Microspora). Int. J. Parasitol. 40:1433-1446.
  • Krugner-Higby, L., Haak, D., Johnson, P.T.J., Shields, J.D., Jones III, W.M., Reece, K.S., Meinke, T., Gendron, A. and J.A. Rusak (2010) Ulcerative disease outbreak in crayfish Oronectes propinquus linked Saprolegnia australis in Big Muskellunge Lake, Wisconsin. Dis. Aquat. Org. 91:57-66.
  • Costa de Melo, A.G., Varela, E.S., Beasley, C.R., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I., Gaffney, P.M., Reece, K.S., and C.H. Tagliaro (2010) Molecular identification, phylogeny and geographic distribution of Brazilian mangrove oysters (Crassostrea). Gen. Mol. Biol. 33:564-572.
  • Xiao, J. Cordes, J.F., Wang, H., Guo, X., and K.S. Reece (2010) Population genetics of Crassostrea ariakensis in Asia inferred from microsatellite markers.  Mar. Biol. 157:1767-1781.
  • Small, H.J., Shields, J.D., Haas, L.W., Vogelbein, W.K., Moss, J.A. and K.S Reece (2009) Genetic variation among strains of Pseudopfiesteria shumwayae and Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae). J. Phycol. 45(6):1315-1322.
  • Reece, K.S., Burreson, E.M. and C.F. Dungan (2008) Molecular epidemiology of Perkinsus marinus and P. chesapeaki infections in wild oysters and clams of the Chesapeake Bay region. Dis. Aquat. Org. 82:237-248.
  • Cordes, J.F., Xiao J. and K.S. Reece (2008) Discrimination of nine Crassostrea oyster species based upon restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers. J. Shellfish Res. 27:1155-1161.
  • Carlsson, J., Carnegie, R.B., Cordes, J.F., Hare, M.P., Leggett, A.T. and K.S. Reece (2008) Evaluating recruitment contribution of a selectively bred aquaculture line of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica used in restoration efforts. J. Shellfish Res. 27:1117-1124.
  • Johnston, L.D., Brown, G., Gauthier, D., Reece, K., Kator, H. and P. Van Veld (2008) Apolipoprotein A-I from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) demonstrates antibacterial activity in vitro. Compar. Biochem. Physiol. 151:167-175.
  • Gast, R.J., Moran, D.M., Audemard, C., Lyon, M.M., Uhlinger, K., Reece, K.S., Leavitt, D. and R. Smolowitz (2008) Environmental distribution and persistence of Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX). Dis. Aquat. Org. 81:219-229.
  • Gauthier, D.T., Vogelbein, W.K., Rhodes, M.W. and K.S. Reece (2008) Nested polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii in striped bass. J. Aquat. Animal Health. 20:192-201.
  • Casas, S.M., Reece, K.S., Li, Y., Moss, J.A., Villalba, A. and J.F. La Peyre (2008) Continuous culture of Perkinsus mediterraneus, a parasite of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis and characterization of its morphology, propagation, and extracellular proteins in vitro. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 55:34-43.
  • Xiao, J., Cordes, J.F., Jones, K.C., Allen, S.K., Jr. and K.S. Reece (2008) Eleven novel microsatellite markers for the Asian oyster Crassostrea ariakensis. Mol. Ecol. Res. 8:843-845.
  • Moss, J.A., Xiao, J., Dungan, C.F. and K.S. Reece (2008) Description of Perkinsus beihaiensis n. sp., a new Perkinsus sp. parasite in oysters of Southern China. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 55:117-130.
  • Reece, K.S., Cordes, J.F., Stubbs, J.B., Francis, E., and K. Hudson (2008) Molecular phylogenies help resolve taxonomic confusion with Asian Crassostrea oyster species. Mar. Biol. 153:709-721.
  • Grauvogel, C., Reece, K.S., Brinkmann, H. and J. Peterson (2007) Plastid isoprenoid metabolism in the oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus connects dinoflagellates and malaria pathogens - new impetus for studying alveolates. J. Mol. Evol. 65:725-729.
  • Moss, J.A., Burreson, E.M., Cordes, J.F., Dungan, C.F., Brown, G.D., Wang, A., Wu, X. and K.S. Reece (2007) Pathogens in Crassostrea ariakensis and other Asian oyster species: implications for non-native oyster introduction to Chesapeake Bay. Dis. Aquat. Org. 77: 207-223.
  • Mason, P.L., Litaker, R.W., Jeong, H.J., Ha, J.H., Reece, K.S., Stokes, N.A., and J.Y. Park (2007) Description of a new genus of Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates, Luciella gen. nov. (Dinophyceae), including two new species: Luciella masanensis sp. nov. and Luciella atlantis sp. nov. J. Phycol. 43:799-810.
  • Dungan, C.F., Hamilton, R.M., Burreson, E.M., Reece, K.S. and N.A. Stokes (2007) Experimental cross-infections by Perkinsus marinus and P. chesapeaki in three sympatric species of Chesapeake Bay oysters and clams. Dis. Aquat. Org. 76(1):67-75.
  • Nunan L.M., Lightner D.V., Pantoja C.R., Stokes N.A. and K.S. Reece (2007) Characterization of a rediscovered haplosporidian parasite from cultured Penaeus vannamei. Dis. Aquat. Org. 74:67-75.
  • Dungan, C.F., Reece, K.S., Moss, J.A., Hamilton, R.M. and B.K. Diggles (2007) Perkinsus olseni in vitro isolates from the New Zealand clam Austrovenus stutchburyi. J. Eukary. Microbiol. 54(3):263-270.
  • Small, H.J., Shields, J.D., Moss, J.A. and K.S. Reece (2007) Conservation in the first internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) in Hematodinium species infecting crustacean hosts found in the UK and Newfoundland. Dis. Aquat. Org. 75:251-258.
  • Small, H.J., Shields, J.D., Hudson, K.L. and K.S. Reece (2007) Molecular detection of Hematodinium sp. infecting the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. J. Shellfish Res. 26:131-139.[131:MDOHSI]2.0.CO;2
  • Carlsson, J. and K.S. Reece (2007) Eight PCR primers to amplify EST-linked microsatellites in the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica genome. Mol. Ecol. Notes. 7:257-259.
  • Litaker, R.W., Vandersea, M.W., Reece, K.S., Stokes, N.A., Yonish, B.A., Kibler, S.R., Black, M.N.D., Steidinger, K.A., Lutzoni, F.M. and P.A. Tester (2007) Recognizing dinoflagellate species using ITS rDNA sequences. J. Phycol. 43(2):344-355.
  • Boettcher, K.J., Smolowitz, R., Lewis, E.J., Allam, B., Dickerson, H., Ford, S., Huq, A., Reece, K.S., Rivara, G., Maloy, A.P. and C.M. Woodley (2006) Juvenile oyster disease (JOD) in Crassostrea virginica: synthesis of knowledge and recommendations. J. Shellfish Res. 25:683-686.[651:AOTP]2.0.CO;2
  • Li, C., Shields, J.D., Small, H.J., Reece, K.S., Hartwig, C.L., Cooper, R.A. and R.E. Ratzlaff (2006) Detection of Panulirus argus virus 1 (Pav1) in the Caribbean spiny lobster using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Dis. Aquat. Org. 72:185-192.
  • Carlsson, J., Morrison, C. and K.S. Reece (2006) Wild and aquaculture populations of the Eastern oyster compared using microsatellites. J. Hered. 97:595-598.
  • Dungan, C.F. and K.S. Reece (2006) In vitro propagation of two Perkinsus spp. parasites from Japanese Manila clams Venerupis philippinarum, and description of Perkinsus honshuensis n. sp. J. Eukary. Microbiol. 53(5):316-326.
  • Burreson, E.M. and K.S. Reece (2006) Spore ornamentation of Haplosporidium nelsoni and Haplosporidium costale (Haplosporidia) and incongruence of molecular phylogeny and spore ornamentation in the Haplosporidia. J. Parasitol. 92(6):1295-1301.
  • Camara, M.D., Allen, S.K., Jr., Carnegie, R.B. and K.S. Reece (2006) Out-crossing among commercial strains of the Northern Quahog, Mercenaria mercenaria: Survival, growth, and implications for selective breeding. J. Shellfish Res. 25(2):403-416.[403:OACSOT]2.0.CO;2
  • Audemard, C., Ragone Calvo, L.M., Paynter, K.T., Reece, K.S. and E.M. Burreson (2006) Real-time PCR investigation of parasite ecology: In situ determination of oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus transmission dynamics in lower Chesapeake Bay. Parasitol. 132:827-842.
  • Hare, M., Allen, S.K., Jr., Bloomer, P., Camara, M.D., Carnegie, R.B., Murfree, J., Luckenbach, M., Meritt, D., Morrison, C., Paynter, K.T., Reece, K.S. and C. Rose (2006) A genetic test for recruitment enhancement in Chesapeake Bay oysters, Crassostrea virginica, after population supplementation with a disease tolerant strain. Cons. Genetics 7:717-734.
  • Moss, J.A., Burreson, E.M. and K.S. Reece (2006) Advanced Perkinsus marinus infections in Crassostrea ariakensis maintained under laboratory conditions. J. Shellfish. Res. 25(1):65-72.[65:APMIIC]2.0.CO;2
  • Litaker, R.W., Steidinger, K.A., Mason, P.L., Lansberg, J.H., Shields, J.D., Reece, K.S., Haas, L.W., Vogelbein, W.K., Vandersea, M.W., Kibler, S.R., and P.A. Tester (2005) The reclassification of Pfiesteria shumwayae (Dinophyceae): Pseudopfiesteria, gen. nov. J. Phycol. 41(3):643-651.
  • Zhang, Q., Allen, S.K., Jr. and K.S. Reece (2005) Genetic variation in wild and hatchery stocks of Suminoe oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis) assessed by PCR-RFLP and microsatellite markers. Mar. Biotechnol. 7(6):588-599.
  • Brown, G.D., Kaattari, S.L. and K.S. Reece (2005) Effect of homogenate from different oyster species on Perkinsus marinus proliferation and subtilisin gene transcription. J. Shellfish Res. 24(4):1027-1033.[1027:EOHFDO]2.0.CO;2
  • Burreson, E.M., Dungan, C.F. and K.S. Reece (2005) Molecular, morphological, and experimental evidence support the synonymy of Perkinsus chesapeaki and Perkinsus andrewsi. J. Eukary. Micro. 52(3):258-270.
  • Hedgecock, D., Gaffney, P.M., Goulletquer, P., Guo, X., Reece, K. and G.W. Warr (2005) The case for sequencing the Pacific oyster genome. J. Shellfish Res. 24:429-441.[429:TCFSTP]2.0.CO;2
  • Rhodes, M.W., Kator, H., McNabb, A., Deshayes, C., Reyrat, J.-M., Brown-Elliott, B.A., Wallace, R., Jr., Trott, K.A., Parker, J.M., Lifland, B., Osterhout, G., Kaattari, I., Reece, K.S., Vogelbein, W. and C.A. Ottinger (2005) Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii sp. nov., a slowly growing chromogenic species isolated from Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 55:1139-1147.
  • Friedman, C.S., Estes, R.M., Stokes, N.A., Burge, C.A., Hargove, J.S., Barber, B.J., Elston, R.A., Burreson, E.M. and K.S. Reece (2005) Herpes virus in juvenile Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas from Tomales Bay, California, coincides with summer mortality episodes. Dis. Aquat. Org. 63:33-41.
  • Villalba, A., Reece, K.S., Ordás, M.C., Casas, S.M. and A. Figueras (2004) Perkinsosis in molluscs – a review. Aquatic Living Resources. 17(4):411-432.
  • Reece, K.S., Siddall, M.E., Stokes, N.A. and E.M. Burreson (2004) Molecular phylogeny of the Haplosporidia based on two independent gene sequences. J. Parasitol. 90(5):1111-1122.
  • Audemard, C., Reece, K.S. and E.M. Burreson (2004) Real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of the protistan parasite Perkinsus marinus in environmental waters. Appl. Environ. Micro. 70:6611-6618.
  • Reece, K.S., Ribeiro, W.L., Gaffney, P.M., Carnegie, R.B. and S.K. Allen, Jr. (2004) Microsatellite marker development and analysis in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica: Confirmation of null alleles and non-Mendelian segregation ratios. J. Heredity. 95:346-352.
  • Brown, G., Hudson, K.L. and K.S. Reece (2004) Multiple polymorphic sites at the ITS and ATAN loci in cultured isolates of Perkinsus marinus. J. Eukary Micro. 51:312-320.
  • Casas, S.M., Grau, A., Reece, K.S., Apakupakul, K., Azevedo, C. and A. Villalba (2004) Perkinsus mediterraneus n. sp. a protistan parasite of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis (L.) from the coast of Balearic Islands, Mediterranean Sea. Dis. Aquat. Org. 58:231-244.
  • Earnhart, C.G., Vogelbein, M.A., Brown, G.D., Reece, K.S. and S.L. Kaattari (2004) Supplementation of Perkinsus marinus cultures with host plasma or tissue homogenate enhances their infectivity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 421-432.
  • Elston, R., Dungan, C., Meyers, T. and K.S. Reece (2004) Perkinsus sp. infection risk for Manila clams, Venerupis philippinarum (Admas and Reeve, 1850) on the Pacific coast of North and Central America. J. Shellfish. Res. 23:101-105.
  • Brown, G. and K.S. Reece (2003) Isolation and characterization of serine protease gene(s) from Perkinsus marinus. Dis. Aquat. Org. 57:117-126.
  • Reece, K.S., N. Stokes (2003) Molecular analysis of a haplosporidian parasite from cultured New England abalone Haliotis iris. Dis. Aquat. Org. 53:61-66.
  • Litaker, R.W., Vandersea, M.W., Kibler, S.R., Reece, K.S., Stokes, N.A., Steidinger, K.A., Millie, D.F., Bendis, B.J., Pigg, R.J., and P.A. Tester (2003) Identification of Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophycae) and Pfiesteria-like organisms using internal transcribes spacer-specific PCR assays. J. Phycol. 39:754-761.
  • Vogelbein, W.K., Lovko, V.J., Shields, J.D., Reece, K.S., Mason, P.L., Haas, L.W. and C.C. Walker (2002) Pfiesteria shumwayae kills fish by micropredation not exotoxin secretion. Nature 418:967-970.
  • Berry, J.P., Reece, K.S., Rein, K.S., Baden, D.G., Haas, L.W., Ribeiro, W.L., Shields, J.D., Snyder, R.V., Vogelbein, W.K. and R.E. Gawley (2002) Are Pfiesteria species toxicogenic? Evidence against production of ichthyotoxins by Pfiesteria shumwayae. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 99(17):10970-10975.
  • Dungan, C.F., Hamilton, R.M., Hudson, K.L., McCollough, C.B. and K.S. Reece (2002) Two epizootic infectious diseases in Chesapeake Bay commercial clams Mya arenaria and Tagelus plebeius. Dis. Aquat. Org. 50:67-78.
  • Reece, K.S., Bushek, D., Hudson, K.L. and J.E. Graves (2001) Geographic distribution of Perkinsus marinus genetic strains along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the USA. Mar. Biol. 139:1047-1055.
  • Reece, K.S., Bushek, D. and J.E. Graves (1997) Molecular markers for population genetic analysis of Perkinsus marinus. Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 6(3):197-206.
  • Reece, K.S., Siddall, M.E., Burreson, E.M. and J.E. Graves (1997) Phylogenetic analysis of Perkinsus based upon actin gene sequences. J. Parasitol. 83(3):417-423.
  • Siddall, M.E., Reece, K.S., Graves, J.E. and E.M. Burreson (1997) “Total evidence” refutes the inclusion of Perkinsus species in the phylum Apicomplexa. Parasitology 115:165-176.
  • Reece, K.S. and G.J. Phillips (1995) New plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance cassettes. Gene. 165:141-142.
Courses Taught / Teaching
  • MS 698 Shellfish Health and the Environment
  • MS 673 Marine Molecular Genetics (lecture)
  • MS 673 Marine Molecular Genetics (laboratory)
  • MS 583 Bioinformatics: Molecular Genetic Data Analysis
  • MS 558 Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Marine Organisms
  • MB 250 Marine Biology
  • Bio 404/ MSCI 404/ MSCI 530 Microbial Processes in a Changing Coastal Environment
Current Students
Research Associates
Research Staff
Faculty Awards
  • Class of 1964 Distinguished Associate Professor of Marine Science, 2004-2007
  • Plumeri Award for Faculty Excellence 2008-2010
Professional Memberships
  • American Society of Parasitology
  • Society of Protozoologists
  • National Shellfisheries Association
Collaborative / Interdisciplinary Efforts
  • Harmful algal bloom species research with Drs. Vogelbein and Harris
  • Hematodinium spp. studies with Drs. Shields and Al Place (UMBI)
  • Perkinsus spp. descriptions with Christopher Dungan (MD DNR)
  • Bivalve parasite research with Drs. Burreson and Carnegie
  • Environmental microbiological studies with Drs. Audemard and Kator