Hamish Small homepage

Hamish J. Small

Assistant Professor

Email: [[v|hamish, Contact Hamish Small]]
Phone: (804) 684-7745
Office: Chesapeake Bay Hall S107
Section: Ecosystem Health

  • Ph.D.     Marine Parasitology, University of Glasgow, Scotland   2004                                                           Thesis: Infections of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (L.) by dinoflagellate and ciliate parasites.
  • M.Res.  Biomedical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland  2000
  • B.Sc.      Immunology and Microbiology (Hons. 2:1), University of Strathclyde, Scotland  1999

My research interests are mainly focused in aquatic infectious diseases. In particular, my research efforts are directed towards 1) dinoflagellate and microsporidian taxonomy (using molecular and microscopy techniques); 2) molecular diagnostic and environmental pathogen detection; 3) invertebrate and vertebrate pathology, parasitology, and disease ecology.

In addition to the above, and especially as I am a keen saltwater angler, recent collaborative efforts with Jan McDowell have focused on using molecular techniques to elucidate the population structure of tautog (Tautoga onitis) and cobia (Rachycentron canadum), both of which are recreationally important sport fish. I am also involved in a collaborative project led by Andrew Scheld to quantifying the economic and behavioral effects of regulatory measures in Virginia’s recreational cobia fishery.

I also manage and operate the VIMS Olympus FV1200 laser scanning confocal microscope.

Current Funded Projects
  • Toxicity and Potential Food-Web Impacts of Alexandrium monilatum and its Toxins. NOAA ECOHAB. With K.S. Reece (P.I.), W.K. Vogelbein (Co-P.I.), J Smith (Co-P.I.), R.B. Carnegie (Co-P.I.), and W.G. Reay (Co-P.I.). September 2017 - September 2020.

  • Quantifying the Economic and Behavioral Effects of Alternative Regulatory Measures in Virginia’s Recreational Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) Fishery. Virginia Marine Resources Commission. With A.M. Scheld (P.I.) and S. Musick (Co-P.I.). January 2017- June 2018

  • Genetic analysis of the distinctiveness of Cobia, Rachycentron canadum, from Chesapeake Bay. Virginia Marine Resources Commission. With J.A. McDowell (P.I.) and S. Musick (Co-P.I.). January 2017 - December 2018.

  • Assessment of the genetic stock structure of Tautog, Tautoga onitis, along the U.S. Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to Virginia. NOAA/NMFS Saltonstall-Kennedy Program. With J.R. McDowell (P.I.). 2015 - 2018.

  • Assessing the effects of Hematodinium perezi on recruitment of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. NOAA/NMFS Saltonstall-Kennedy Program. With J.D. Shields (PI) and K.S. Reece (Co-P.I.). 2015 - 2018.

  • Disease and discard mortality in the blue crab fishery: using new information about an old virus to improve management of the resource. NOAA/NMFS Saltonstall-Kennedy Program. With E.J. Schott (P.I.), J.A. Lively (Co-P.I.), and J.D. Shields (Co-P.I.). 2015 - 2018.

Selected Publications
  • Hoenig, J.M., Groner, M.L., Smith, M.W., Vogelbein, W.K., Taylor, D.M., Landers Jr, D.F., Swenarton, J., Gauthier, D.T., Sadler, P., Matsche, M., Haines, A., Small, H.J., Pradel, R., Choquet, R. and Shields, J.D. (2017) Impact of disease on the survival of three commercially fished species. Ecological Applications. 27, 2116-2127.

  • Huchin-Mian, J.P., Small, H.J. and Shields, J.D. (2017) Patterns in the natural transmission of the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi in American blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus from a highly endemic area. Marine Biology. 164: 153.

  • Shields, J.D., Huchin-Mian, J.P., O’Leary, P.A. and Small, H.J. (2017) New insight into the transmission dynamics of the crustacean pathogen Hematodinium perezi (Dinoflagellata) using a novel sentinel methodology. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 573, 73-84.

  • Shields, J.D., Sullivan, S.E. and Small, H.J. (2015) Overwintering of the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi in dredged blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) from Wachapreague Creek, Virginia. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 130, 124-132.

  • Brill, R., Bushnell, P., Elton, T., and Small, H.J. (2015) Ability of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) to sustain aerobic metabolism during hypoxia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 471, 126-136.

  • Small, H.J., Meyer, G.R., Stentiford, G.D., Dunham, J.S., Bateman, K. and Shields, J.D. (2014) Ameson metacarcini sp. nov. (Microsporidia) infecting the muscles of Dungeness crabs (Metacarcinus magister) from British Columbia, Canada. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 110, 213-225.

  • Miller, T.L., Small, H.J., Peemoeller, B-J., Gibbs, D.A. and Shields, J.D. (2013) Experimental infections of Orchitophrya stellarum (Scuticociliata) in American blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and fiddler crabs (Uca minax). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 114, 346-355.
  • Shields, J.D. and Small, H.J. (2013) An unusual cuticular tumor-like growth on the abdomen of a lobster, Homarus americanus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 114, 245-249.
  • Small, H.J., Miller, T.L., Coffey, A.H., Delaney, K.L., Schott, E. and Shields, J.D. (2013) Discovery of an opportunistic starfish pathogen, Orchitophyra stellarum, in captive blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 114, 178-185.
  • Pagenkopp Lohan, K.M., Small, H.J., Shields, J.D., Place, A.R. and Reece, K.S. (2013) Conservation in the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of Hematodinium perezi from Callinectes sapidus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 103, 65-75.
  • Stentiford, G.D., Bateman, K.S., Small, H.J., Pond, M. and Ungfors, A.  (2012) Hematodinium and its bacteria-like endosymbiont in European brown shrimp (Crangon crangon). Aquatic Biosystems. 8, 24.
  • Stebbing, P.D., Pond, M.J., Peeler, E., Small, H.J., Greenwood, S.J. and Verner-Jeffreys, D. (2012) Limited prevalence of gaffkaemia (Aerococcus viridans var. homari) isolated from wild caught European lobsters (Homarus gammarus) in England and Wales. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 100, 159-167.
  • Bateman, K.S., Munro, J., Uglow, B., Small, H.J. and Stentiford, G.D. (2012) Susceptibility of juvenile European lobster (Homarus gammarus) fed  high- and low-dose White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infected shrimp products. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 100, 169-184.
  • Small, H.J. (2012) Advances in our understanding of the global diversity and distribution of Hematodinium spp. - significant pathogens of commercially exploited crustaceans.  Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 110, 234-246.
  • Stentiford, G.D., Neil, D.M., Peeler, E., Shields, J.D., Small, H.J., Flegel, T.W., Vlak, J., Jones, B., Morado, F., Moss, S., Lotz, J., Bartholomay, L., Reantaso, M., Behringer, D.C., Hauton, C. and Lightner, D.V. (2012) Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 110, 141-157.
  • Small, H.J., Shields, J.D., Reece, K.S., Bateman, K. and Stentiford, G.D. (2012) Morphological and molecular characterization of Hematodinium perezi (Dinophyceae: Syndininiales), a dinoflagellate parasite of the harbour crab, Liocarcinus depurator. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59, 54-66.
  • Pagenkopp Lohan, K.M.,  Reece, K.S., Miller, T.L., Wheeler, K.N., Small, H.J. and  Shields, J.D. (2012) The role of alternate hosts in the ecology and life history of Hematodinium sp. a parasitic dinoflagellate of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Journal of Parasitology. 98, 73-84.
  • Caiwen Li, Miller, T.L., Small, H.J. and Shields, J.D. (2011) In vitro culture and developmental cycle of the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Parasitology. 9, 1-11.
  • Small, H.J. Pagenkopp, K.M. (2011) Reservoirs and alternate hosts for pathogens of commercially important crustaceans: A review. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 106, 153-164.
  • Stentiford, G.D., Bateman, K.S., Small, H.J., Moss, J., Shields, J.D., Reece, K.S. and Tuck, I. (2010) Myospora metanephropii (n. gn., n. sp.) from marine lobsters and a proposal for erection of a new Order and Family (Crustaceacida; Myosporidae) in the Class Marinosporidia (Phylum Microspora). International Journal of Parasitology. 40, 1433-1446.
  • Li, C., Reece, K.S., Miller, T.L., Small, H.J., Pagenkopp, K.M. and Shields, J.D. (2010) Detection and quantification of the free-living stage of the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. in laboratory and environmental samples. Harmful Algae.  9, 515-521.
  • Small, H.J., Williams, T.D., Sturve, J., Chipman, J.K., Southam, A.D., Bean, T.P., Lyons, B.P. and Stentiford, G.D. (2010) Gene expression analyses of hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma from the marine flatfish Limanda limanda. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.  88, 127-141.
  • Small, H.J., Shields, J.D., Haas, L.W., Vogelbein, W.K., Moss, J.A. and Reece, K.S. (2009) Genetic variation among strains of Pseudopfiesteria shumwayae and Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 45, 1315-1322.
  • Small, H.J., Sturve, J., Bignell, J.P., Longshaw, M., Lyons, B.P., Hicks, R., Feist, S.W. and Stentiford, G.D. (2008) Laser-assisted microdissection: a new tool for aquatic molecular parasitology. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 82, 151–156.
  • Beale, K.M., Towle, D.W., Jayasundara, N., Smith, C.M., Shields, J.D., Small, H.J. and Greenwood, S.J. (2008) Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors in the American lobster Homarus americanus: Molecular characterization and transcriptional response to Vibrio fluvialis challenge. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology.  Part D 3, 263–269.
  • Ridgway, I.D., Small, H.J., Atkinson, R.J.A., Birkbeck, H.T., Taylor, A.C. and Neil, D.M. (2008) Extracellular proteases and possible disease related virulence mechanisms of two marine bacteria implicated in an opportunistic bacterial infection of Nephrops norvegicus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 99, 14–19.
  • Xu, W.-J., Shi, H., Xu, H.-X., and Small, H.J. (2007) Preliminary study on the Hematodinium infection in cultured Portunus trituberculatus. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica. 31, 640-647.
  • Small, H.J., Shields, J.D., Hudson, K.L. and Reece, K.S. (2007) Molecular detection of the Hematodinium sp. infecting the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Journal of Shellfish Research. 26, 131-139.
  • Small, H.J., Shields, J.D., Moss, J.A. and Reece, K.S. (2007) Conservation in the first internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) in Hematodinium species infecting crustacean hosts found in the United Kingdom and Newfoundland. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 75, 251-258.
  • Small, H.J., Shields, J.D., Neil, D.M., Taylor, A.C. and Coombs, G.H. (2007) Differences in enzyme activities between two species of Hematodinium, parasitic dinoflagellates of crustaceans. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 94, 175-183.
  • Li, C., Shields, J.D., Small, H.J., Reece, K.S., Hartwig, C.L., Cooper, R.A. and Ratzlaff, R.E. (2006) Detection of Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1) in the Caribbean spiny lobster using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 72, 185-192.
  • Small, H.J., Neil, D.M., Taylor, A.C., Atkinson, R.J.A. and Coombs, G.H. (2006) Molecular detection of Hematodinium spp. in the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (L.), and other crustaceans. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 69, 185-195.
  • Small, H.J., Neil, D.M., Taylor, A.C., Bateman, K. and Coombs, G.H. (2005) A parasitic scuticociliate infection in the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 90, 108-117.
  • Small, H.J., Neil, D.M. Taylor, A.C. and Coombs, G.H. (2005) Identification and partial characterisation of metalloproteases secreted by a Mesanophrys-like ciliate parasite of the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 67, 225-231.
  • Small, H.J., Wilson, S., Neil, D.M., Hagan, P. and Coombs, G.H. (2002) Detection of the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium in the Norway Lobster Nephrops norvegicus by ELISA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 52, 175-177.
  • Stentiford, G.D., Green, M., Bateman, K., Small, H.J., Neil, D.M. and Feist, S.W. (2002) Infection by a Hematodinium-like parasitic dinoflagellate causes Pink Crab Disease (PCD) in the edible crab Cancer pagurus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 79, 179-191.