Dr. Richard Brill

Richard Brill

Affiliated Scholar

Email: [[v|rbrill]]
Phone: 804-684-7875
Section: Natural Resources

  • B.A., Lafayette College
  • M.S., Northeastern University
  • Ph.D., John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii
Research Interests

My interests center on the physiological ecology, sensory biology, and bioenergetics of fishes. The overall objective is to use physiological research techniques to address questions pertinent to fisheries science. Current Projects involving VIMS students, faculty, and other colleagues include:

  • Investigating the effects of ocean acidification on the sensory biology of Chesapeake Bay fishes.
  • Using electroretinography to study visual function of Chesapeake Bay fishes, including sensitivity to ultraviolet light.
  • Development of a microprocessor-based shark bycatch reduction device.
  • Quantifying the functional properties of blue catfish electroreceptors, with the goal of predicting how salinity can limit the spread of this invasive species.
Selected Publications
  • Horodysky, A. Z., W. Brill, E. J. Warrant, J. A. Musick, and R. J. Latour. 2010. Comparative visual function in four piscivorous fishes inhabiting Chesapeake Bay. J. Exp. Biol. 213: 1751-1761.
  • Gallagher, A. J., L. H. Frick, P. G.  Bushnell, W. Brill, and J. W. Mandelman.  2010. Blood gas, oxygen saturation, pH, and lactate values in elasmobranch blood measured with an i-STAT portable clinical analyzer and standard laboratory instruments.  J. Aquat. Animal Health.22: 229-234.
  • Horodysky, A., W. Brill, P. G. Bushnell, J. Musick, and R. J. Latour. 2011. Metabolic rates of western North Atlantic sciaenid fishes. J. Fish Biol. 79: 235-255.
  • Musyl, M., Brill, L. McNaughton, Y. Swimmer, M. Domeier, N. Nasby-Lucas, M. Lutcavage, S. Wilson, B. Galuardi, F. Royer, and J. Liddle. 2011. Performance of pop-up satellite archival tags. Fish. Ocean.  433: 1-28.
  • Musyl, M.K., W. Brill, D.S. Curran, N.M. Fragoso, L.M. McNaughton, B.S. Kikkawa, and C.D. Moyes. 2011. Post-release survival, vertical and horizontal movements, and thermal niche partitioning in five species of pelagic sharks. Fish. Bull. 109: 341-368.
  • Caposella, K. M., M. C. Fabrizio, W. Brill, and P. G. Bushnell. 2012. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses of summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus to hypoxia at two temperatures. J. Fish Biol. 81: 1043-1058.
  • Caposella, K. M, M.C. Fabrizio, and W. Brill. 2012. Migratory and within‑estuary behaviors of adult summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in a Virginia Eastern Shore seaside lagoon using passive acoustic telemetry. Fish. Bull. 111: 189-201.
  • Horodysky, A. Z., W. Brill, K. C. Crawford, E. S. Seagroves, and A. K. Johnson. 2013. Comparative visual ecophysiology of mid‑Atlantic temperate reef fishes. Biology Open. 2: 1371-1381.
  • Bouyoucos, I., P. Bushnell, and Brill. 2013. Potential for electropositive metal to reduce the interactions of Atlantic sturgeon with fishing gear. Cons. Biol. 28: 278‑282.
  • Landgren, E., K. Fritsches, Brill and E. Warrant. 2014. The visual ecology of a deep-sea fish, the escolar Lepidocybium flavobrunneum (Smith, 1843).  Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 369: 20130039.
  • Lapointe, D., W. K. Vogelbein, M. C. Fabrizio, D. T. Gauthier, and W. Brill. 2014. Effects of temperature, hypoxia and mycobacteriosis on the metabolism of adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Dis. Aquat. Organ. 108: 113-129.
  • Kalonoski, M., A. Hirons, A. Horodysky, and Brill. 2014. Spectral sensitivity, light sensitivity, and temporal resolution of the visual systems in three sympatric coastal shark species: sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis canis), and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). J. Comp. Physiol. A 200: 997-1013.
  • Harter, T. S., P. R. Morrison, J. W. Mandelman, J. L. Rummer, A. P. Farrell, W. Brill, and C. J. Brauner. 2015. Validation of the i-STAT system for the analysis of blood gases and acid-base status in juvenile sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus). Conser. Physiol. 3: 1-10.
  • Musyl, M. K., C. D. Moyes, W. Brill, B. L. Mourato, A. West, L. M. McNaughton, W.-C. Chiang, and C.-L. Sun. 2015 Post-release mortality in istiophorid billfish. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 72: 538-556.
  • Brill, R. W., P. G. Bushnell, T. Elton, and H. Small. 2015. The ability of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) to sustain aerobic metabolism during hypoxia. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 471:126-136.
  • Horodysky, A. Z., W. Brill, S. J. Cooke. 2015. Physiology in the service of fisheries science: why thinking mechanistically matters. Reviews Fish Biol. Fish. 25: 425-447.
  • Sturdivant, K. S., M. Perchik, W. Brill, P. Bushnell. 2015. Metabolic responses of the Nereid polychaete, Alitta succinea, to hypoxia at two different temperatures. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 473: 161-168.
  • Eddy, C., Brill, and D. Bernal. 2016. Rates of at-vessel mortality and post-release survival of pelagic sharks captured with tuna purse seines around drifting fish aggregating devices (FADs) in the Equatorial Eastern Pacific Ocean. Fish. Res. 174: 109-117.
  • Brill, R. and N. Chin Lai. 2016. Elasmobranch Cardiovascular System In: Fish Physiology, Vol. 34B, Physiology of Elasmobranch Fishes – Internal Processes. R. E. Shadwick, A. P. Farrell, and C. J. Brauner (editors), Academic Press, San Diego, pages 2-83.
  • Horodysky, A. J., S. J. Cooke, J. E. Graves, and W. Brill. 2016. Fisheries conservation on the high seas: linking conservation physiology and fisheries ecology for the management of pelagic fishes. Conserv. Physiol. 4: 1-18.
  • Schlenker, L. S., R. J. Latour, W. Brill, and J. E. Graves. 2016. Physiological stress and post-release mortality of White Marlin (Kajikia albida) caught in the U.S. recreational fishery. Conser. Physiol. 4: 1-15.
  • Deary, A. L., B. Metscher, E. J. Hilton, and W. Brill. 2016. Development of sensory modality in early life history stage of estuarine fishes (Sciaenidae) from the Chesapeake Bay using micro-computed tomography. Env. Biol. Fish. 99: 361-375.
  • Deshpande, A. D., R. M. Dickhut, B. W. Dockum, C. Farrington, and W. Brill. 2016. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 105: 265-276.
  • Whitney, N. M., M. Taquet, W. Brill, C. Girard, K. N. Holland, L. Dagorn. 2016. Swimming depth of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) associated and unassociated with fish aggregating devices. Fish. Bulletin 114: 426-434.
  • Nielsen, J., R. B. Hedeholm, P. G. Bushnell, J. Heinemeier, P. G. Bushnell, J. S. Christiansen, J. Olsen, C. B. Ramsey, W. Brill, M. Simon, K. F. Steffensen, J. F. Steffensen. 2016. Eye lens radiocarbon reveals centuries of longevity in the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus). Science 353: 702-704.
  • Lynch, S. D., B. J. Marcek, H. M. Marshall, P. G. Bushnell, D. Bernal, and W. Brill. 2016. The effects of pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) on the metabolic rate and swimming kinematics of juvenile sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus. Fisheries Res. 186: 205-215.
  • Cox, G. C., W. Brill, K. A. Bonaro, A. P. Farrell. 2016. Determinants of coronary blood flow in the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus. J. Comp. Physiol. B 187: 315-327.
  • Larsen, J., P. Bushnell, J. Steffensen, M. Pedersen, K. Qvortrup, and Brill. 2016. Characterization of the functional and anatomical differences in the atrial and ventricular myocardium in three species of elasmobranch fishes: smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria), and sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus). J. Comp. Physiol. B. 187: 291-313.
  • Muhling, B. A., W. Brill, J. T. Lamkin, M. A. Roffer, S-K. Lee, Y. Liu, F. Muller-Karger. 2016. Projections of future habitat use by Atlantic bluefin tuna: mechanistic versus correlative distribution models. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 74:698-716.
  • Bernal, D., K. Dickson, H. Shields, and Brill. 2017. Sharing the water column: physiological mechanisms underlying species‑specific habitat use. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisheries 27: 843-880.
  • Brill, R. W and A. J. Hobday. 2017. Tunas and their fisheries: safeguarding sustainability in the twenty-first century. Rev. Fish. Biol. Fisheries 27: 691-695.
  • Mislan, K. A. S., C. A. Deutsch, W. Brill, J. B. Dunne, and J. L. Sarmiento. 2017. Predicted consequences of climate change on vertical habitat availability of tunas based on species-specific differences in blood oxygen affinity. Glob. Change Biol. 23: 4019-4028.
  • Herbert, N. A., P. V. Skov, B. Tirsgaard, P. G. Bushnell, W. Brill, C. Harvey Clark, and J. F. Steffensen. 2017. The whole blood-oxygen binding properties of a large Polar elasmobranch, the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus. Polar Biology 40: 2297-2305.
  • Magel, C. M., C. Ryer, and Brill. 2017. Recovery of visual function from bright light exposure in Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). Fish. Bull. 115: 566-575.
  • Howard, S., Brill, R., Heburn, C., Rock, J. 2018. Microprocessor-based prototype bycatch reduction device reduces bait consumption by spiny dogfish and sandbar sharks. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 75: 2235-2244. Lyons, K., J. Bigman, D. Kacev, C. Mull, A. Carlisle, J. Imhoff, J. Anderson, K. Weng, A. Shaw, A., E. Cave, T. Gunn, C. Lowe, Brill, and C. Bedore. 2019. Bridging disciplines to advance elasmobranch conservation: applications of physiological ecology. Conserv. Physiol. 7(1): coz011; doi:10.1093/conphys/coz011.
  • Song, J, Brill, J. McDowell. 2019. Plasticity in standard and maximum aerobic metabolic rates in two populations of an estuarine dependent teleost, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). MDPI Biology, 8, 46; doi:10.3390/biology8020046.
  • Marcek, B., Brill, and M. Fabrizio. 2019. Metabolic scope and hypoxia tolerance of Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulatus Linnaeus, 1766) and spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepède, 1802), with insights into the effects of acute temperature change. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 516: 150-158.
  • Crear, D., Brill, P. Bushnell, R. Latour, G. Schwieterman, R. Steffen, and K. Weng. 2019. The impacts of warming and hypoxia on the performance of an obligate ram ventilator. Conserv. Physiol. coz026,
  • Brill, R. W., A. Z. Horodysky, A. R. Place, M. E. M. R. Larkin. Reimschuessel. 2019. Effects of dietary taurine level on visual function in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Plos One OS ONE doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0214347.
  • Leung, S., K. A. S. Mislan, B. Muhling, and Brill. 2019. The significance of ocean deoxygenation for species and assemblages; Open ocean tunas and billfishes. IUCN Report: Ocean deoxygenation: everyone’s problem. Causes, impacts, consequences and solutions. D Laffoley and J. M. Baxter (editors). IUCN xxi, Gland, Switzerland, pages: 277-308.
  • Schwieterman, G., D. Crear, B. Anderson, D. Lavoie, J. Sulikowski, P. Bushnell, and Brill. 2019. Combined effects of acute temperature change and elevated pCO2 on the metabolic rates and hypoxia tolerances of Mid- and North-Atlantic fishes: Clearnose skate (Rostaraja elganteria), summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata). MDPI Biology 2019, 8, 5.
  • Schwieterman, G. D., I. A. Bouyoucos, K. Potgieter, C. A. Simpfendorfer, W. Brill, J. L. Rummer. 2019. Analyzing tropical elasmobranch blood samples in the field: Blood stability during storage and validation of the HemoCue® haemoglobin analyzer" Conserv. Physiol. Conserv. Physiol. 7: DOI: 10.1093/conphys/coz08.
  • Marcek, B., Brill, R., Fabrizio. M. 2019. Metabolic scope and hypoxia tolerance of Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulatus Linnaeus, 1766) and spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepède, 1802), with insights into the effects of acute temperature change. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 516: 150-158.
  • Hasenei, A., D. Kerstetter, A. Horodysky, R. Brill. 2020 Physiological limits to inshore invasion of Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois ); insights from the functional characteristics of their visual system and hypoxia tolerance. Biol. Invasions 22: 2079-2097,
  • Crear, D., Brill, R., Bushnell, P., Latour, R., Schwieterman, G., Steffen, R., Weng, K. 2020. In the face of climate change and exhaustive exercise: the physiological response of an important recreational fish species. Royal Society Open Science 7: 1-13.
  • Schwieterman, G. D., M. M. Winchester, H. A. Shiels, P. G. Bushnell, D. Bernal, H. M. Marshall, and R. W. Brill. 2021. The effects of elevated potassium, acidosis, reduced oxygen levels, and temperature on the functional properties of isolated myocardium from three elasmobranch fishes: clearnose skate (Rostroraja eglanteria), smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), and sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus). J. Comp. Physiol. 191: 127-141,
  • Nepal, V., R.W. Brill and M.C. Fabrizio. 2021. Effects of food limitation on growth, body condition and metabolic rates of non-native blue catfish. Conserv. Physiol. 9: 10.1093/conphys/coaa129.
  • Schwieterman, G. D., J. L. Rummer, I. A. Bouyoucos, P. G. Bushnell, and R. W. Brill. 2021. A lack of red blood cell swelling in five elasmobranch fishes following air exposure and exhaustive exercise. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. 258: 119078,
  • Horodysky, A. Z, C. C. Schweitzer, and R. W. Brill. Applied Sensory Physiology and Behavior. Chapter 2 In: Conservation Physiology for the Anthropocene – Issues and Applications. Fish Physiology, Vol. 39A. A.S. Cooke and N. Fangue (editors), Academic Press, San Diego. (in press).
  • Marcek, B., R. Humston, M.C. Fabrizio, J. Shen, and R.W. Brill. Modeling the Distribution of Atlantic croaker and spot in a dynamic seascape using metabolic scope. Estuar. and Coast. (submitted).